Free Esperanto Course

Posted on in Ni parolas Esperante 27 vedi

F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E
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Introduction

WHAT IS ESPERANTO?

Esperanto, the international language, is a language developed to make it
easier for people of different cultures to communicate. Its author, Dr. L.
L. Zamenhof (1859-1917), published his “Lingvo Internacia” in 1887 under
the pseudonym “Dr. Esperanto”. It is now spoken by at least two million
people, in over 100 countries. There are thousands of books and over 100
periodicals published currently. But what makes it any more international
than French, English or Russian?

Incorrectly termed 'artificial' (the right word is 'planned'), Esperanto is
specifically intended for international/intercultural use, so those who use
it meet each other on an equal footing, since neither is using his or her
native language. With national languages, the average person isn't able to
express himself as well as a native speaker or the gifted linguist. Thanks
to its simple, logical, regular design, anyone can learn Esperanto fairly
rapidly.

A LIVING LANGUAGE

Esperanto is a living language, used for everything people use any other
language for. But it's much easier to learn than a national language. Even
people who can't remember a word of a language they studied for years in
high school or college need only months of intensive study to become fluent
in Esperanto. It is also more useful than national languages if your goal
in learning a language is to get to know people from different places,
since virtually everyone who speaks Esperanto has learned it for this
reason.

ABOUT THIS COURSE

This course is based on ELNA's Free Postal Course, which is, in turn, based
on a very popular postal course in use today in England. The course is a
bit old-fashioned, and we are working on a more appealing version. In the
meantime, you will have to bear with it. Upon successful completion of the
ten lessons, you will receive a framable Certificate of Completion.

A note about the orthography: To facilitate distribution of this course
over the net, we have chosen to represent the two diacritical marks (the
circumflex or ^, and the breve, a 'reversed circumflex' unavailable in
standard character sets) by adding an x immediately following the
character. Hence the combinations cx, gx, hx, jx, sx, (where x = ^) and ux
(where x = [breve]) should be thought of as single characters.

GETTING CONNECTED

Here are the WWW sites of national Esperanto associations in the major
English-speaking countries. If your country isn't listed, ask us and we
can find the address for you.

Australia:
Australian Esperanto Association
http://www.esperanto.org.au/

Britain:
British Esperanto Association
http://www.esperanto.demon.co.uk/

Canada:
Canadian Esperanto Association
http://www.sentex.net/~engcorp/kea/

India:
mailto:helpo@giaspn01.vsnl.net.in

Ireland:
http://www.selfgrow.com/esperanto/

New Zealand:
Esperanto Association of New Zealand
mailto:neelam@voyager.co.nz

USA:
Esperanto League for North America
http://www.esperanto-usa.org/

The World Association is:
Universala Esperanto-Asocio
http://wwwtios.cs.utwente.nl/esperanto/org/uea/

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Lesson One

Language is all about things (nouns) and their actions (verbs) of energetic
things:

One thing… Acts on… Another thing

birdo kaptas… insekton.
a bird catches… an insect.

subject noun verb object noun

Esperanto is “grammar-coded” – you can tell what part each word plays
in a sentence from the word endings:

-o -on
single subject noun single object noun

-oj -ojn
plural subject noun plural object noun

To show when the action takes place, the verb tense (time) is changed by
putting these endings on the verb roots:

present tense –as describes it as it happens
past tense –is shows an action completed
future tense –os action still to begin

Birdoj kaptis insektojn.
Birds caught insects.

Birdoj kaptos insektojn.
Birds will-catch insects.

Every noun and every verb follows the above rules without exception.

In Esperanto, things have no gender (they are not male or female, as in
many other languages.) There is only one word for 'the', no matter if the
noun is singular or plural, subject or object. Therefore:

La birdoj kaptas la insektojn.
La birdo kaptis la insekton.

In Esperanto the word order matters less than in English. All the
following sentences describe the same action (only the emphasis is
changed):

Viro legas libron. Viro libron legas.
Libron legas viro. Libron viro legas.
Legas viro libron. Legas libron viro.

A man reads a book.

Here are some words in Esperanto (the apostrophe indicates an incomplete
word, a root):

Nouns Verbs (roots) More nouns
amiko (friend) far' (do, make) kafo (coffee)
filo (son) forges' (forget) kuko (cake)
frato (brother) hav' (have) lakto (milk)
instruisto (teacher) trink' (drink) pano (bread)
knabo (boy) vend' (sell) sukero (sugar)
patro (father) vid' (see) teo (tea)

Each Esperanto letter has only one sound, always. Here is a guide to some
of the sounds. The stress is always on the next-to-last syllable of a
word.

A E I O U
palm there three glory too

c = ts (in lots); oj = oy (in boy); G = g (in go)
kn are always pronounced separately: k-nabo

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Study Aid for Lesson One

Read Lesson 1 thoroughly, but before trying the exercises below,
try these translations and check your answers with ours.

(We have supplied some words and endings to help you get started).

1. The friend will-sell milk.


lakton.

2. Mother drinks coffee with milk and sugar.


Patrino -n kun kaj

3. The teachers forgot the tea.


-j -n.

4. The boys will-make the cake.


-n.

5. La knabinoj vidos la instruiston. [knabinoj = girls]


6. La instruisto vidis la knabinojn.


7. La filoj trinkas teon sen lakto. [sen = without]


8. La birdoj vidis la insektojn.


After checking these sentences, do the exercises of Lesson 1.
If there is anything you do not understand, be sure to ask your tutor.

We will try to be prompt, but be patient, and most of all:
Bonvenon al Esperanto (Welcome to Esperanto)!


Answe rs to the above exercises

1. La amiko vendos lakton.
2. Patrino trinkas kafon kun lakto kaj sukero.
3. La instruistoj forgesis la teon.
4. La knaboj faros la kukon.
5. The girls will see the teacher.
6. The teacher saw the girls.
7. The sons drink tea without milk.
8. The birds saw the insects.


__________________________ extract from here ____________________________

Ekzercoj, Leciono Unu (Exercises, Lesson One)

Take your time and translate the following sentences into Esperanto.
Type your answers between the questions.

Examples: The men sold cakes.
La viroj vendis kukojn.

The man sold a cake.
La viro vendis kukon.

[Note]

1. Father makes a cake.


2. The boy will-have the sugar.


3. The son forgot the milk.


4. The boys drink tea.


5. The friend sold the bread.


6. The teacher sees a boy.


7. The son has a friend.


8. The brother made bread.


9. The boys will-have cake.


10. Father forgot the sugar.


11. The boys had friends.


12. The sons saw the bread.


13. The brothers sell sugar.


14. The teacher forgets the boy.


15. The friend will-drink milk.


16. The sons are-making cakes.


17. Father will-sell the cake.


18. The friend had bread.


19. The boys will-see the teachers.


20. The teachers drink coffee.

__________________________ extract to here ____________________________

Now, don't forget to add your name and e-mail address, and mail these
exercises to the address for your tutor in the Welcome Letter, with
subject: 'FEC ekz 1'.

Well, we hope we haven't scared you off in this first meeting with
Esperanto. Just remember – the language ability you used in the above
exercises might take months to reach in secondary school French or Spanish.

The Free Esperanto Course begins simply, but by Lesson 10 you will
understand sophisticated Esperanto with complex syntax.

Upon satisfactory completion of the series of ten lessons, you will receive
a framable 'Certificate of Completion'.

__________________________________________________________________________

While waiting for a reply from your tutor, you can learn some numbers
and colors:

0 nulo (say: noo-lo)
1 unu (say: oo-noo) flava (FLAH-vah) yellow
2 du (say: doo) verda (VER-dah) green
3 tri (say: t-ri) blua (BLOO-ah) blue
4 kvar blanka (BLAN-ka) white
5 kvin nigra (NEE-gra) black
6 ses griza (GREE-zah) grey
7 sep bruna (BROO-nah) brown
8 ok rugxa (ROO-djah) red
9 naux (say: now) (“gx” as in “gem”, “gentle”)
10 dek
11 dek unu

20 dudek
21 dudek unu

30 tridek
31 tridek unu

100 cent (say: tsent)

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F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E
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Lesson Two

Thanks for trying Lesson 1. By now you should have received corrections
to the exercises of the first lesson. Here is the next lesson. Keep it
up!

Let's review the “grammar-coding” for a second:

subject thing(s) action object thing(s)
-o -as -on
-is
-oj -os -ojn

Two-thirds of the pattern so far deals with “things” (nouns). Now let's
take a look at how to describe these things: good coffee, good tea
(adjectives).

Something that describes, such as “good,” is called an adjective. In
Esperanto, adjectives are grammar coded with an “-a” ending.

As in some other languages (but not in English) the adjective ending (“-a”)
has to “agree” with the noun it describes. That is, if the noun is plural,
the adjective must also be plural. If the noun is an object (“-n”), the
adjective must also be an object.

subject thing(s) action object thing(s)
bona patro havos bonan filon
a good father will have a good son

bonaj patroj havos bonajn filojn
good fathers will have good sons

(Note: “aj” is pronounced like the English word “eye”.)

Vocabulary: In each lesson we will introduce about twenty new words to
you; learn these but remember to review the words in the previous lesson.
Use the words below to practice what you've just learned.
The exercises in this lesson are split into three parts.

Vocabulary, lesson two

Adjectives Nouns Verb Roots
bela (beautiful) akvo (water) am' (love)
granda (big) butiko (shop) lav' (wash)
nova (new) limonado (lemonade) pet' (ask, request)
sana (healthy) papero (paper) port' (carry, wear)
seka (dry) plumo (pen) renkont' (meet)
varma (warm) taso (cup) skrib' (write)

__________________________ extract from here ____________________________

Ekzercoj, Leciono Du (parto unu)

1. A healthy boy drinks warm milk.


2. The new shop sells dry cakes.


3. The big teacher met the new friends.


4. The good friends will-make a beautiful cake.

__________________________ extract to here ____________________________


Reminder:
-a -o -as -an -on
-aj -oj -is -ajn -ojn
-os

We haven't been able to give you enough vocabulary to let us vary these
exercises very much, but in Esperanto the system of regular word building
(with prefixes and suffixes) lets us expand our vocabulary with little
effort. For example, the “mal-” makes words of opposite meaning:

bona = good malbona = bad
pura = clean malpura = dirty
sana = healthy malsana = ill, sick
am' = love malam' = hate
amiko = friend (male) malamiko = enemy (male)

and similarly the “-in-” makes words specifically female.

patro = father patrino = mother

and thus for all female living creatures:

kato = cat katino = female cat

The 'vir' prefix is the original way to mark something as explicitly male:
virkato. Most people avoid using the root form as a 'male' form. It is rare
that you have to mark sex – it is proper to say, for example, Sally estas
instruisto, instead of saying Sally estas instruistino.

__________________________ extract from here ____________________________

Ekzercoj, Leciono Du (parto du)

5. The small girl met the ugly sisters.


6. The old cup has new lemonade.


7. The new cup has old milk.


8. Mother will-wash the small cups.


9. The small boy carried the new bread.


10. Cold water washes a small boy.

__________________________ extract to here ____________________________


“Ne” in front of any verb makes it negative, the action that doesn't
happen, o r didn't happen, or won't happen.

ne havas = doesn't (don't) have; ne faras = doesn't do

Here is just one verb (“to be”) displayed in the usual way (all Esperanto
verbs follow the same rule!):

General form (infinitive) to be esti

Present tense (-as form) I am mi estas
you are vi estas
he is li estas
she is sxi estas
it is gxi estas
we are ni estas
you are vi estas
they are ili estas
one is oni estas

est' is the verb root and always appears wherever the verb is used. Does
this verb even have a root in English? (am, is, are)

In the above verb display, note:

sxi (she) is pronounced exactly like the English “she”

gxi (it) is pronounced like the English “gee!”, as in “Jeep”

vi (you) is both singular and plural, like the English “you.”

(There is a word “ci”, singular, but it is used much as the English
singular “thou” – not very often!)

Note, too, that although pronouns do not end in -o when they are
“subject things”, they do take the -n when they are “object things”:

La patrino lavas la knabon. Sxi lavas lin.
The mother washes the boy. She washes him.

Now that we have learned the pronouns:

mi vi li sxi gxi ni vi ili oni
I you he she it we you they one

we can form the possessive adjectives:

mia via lia sxia gxia nia via ilia (pronounced ee-LEE-a) onia
my your his her its our your their one's

which are really adjectives because they identify (describe) the nouns they
are attached to. Mia plumo = my pen. The ending “-a” on possessive
adjectives follows the same rules about agreement as adjectives:

Mia amiko amas mian fratinon.

Miaj amikoj amas miajn fratinojn.

__________________________ extract from here ____________________________

Ekzercoj, Leciono Du (parto tri)

11. I forgot my pen.


12. We don't have paper.


13. My daughter requested warm milk.


14. Her old friend didn't write.


15. You will meet their old friends.


16. She will have the warm water.


17. Your new teacher forgot your sugar.


18. The boys hate our new teacher.


19. They sell tea and (kaj) coffee.


20. We will sell her cake and his pens.


Note: kaj (and) is pronounced like the ki in kite.

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F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E
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Lesson Three

It may seem like we packed a lot into Lesson Two, but here are the main
things you have learned so far:

subject thing(s) action object thing(s)
-o -as -on
-is
-oj -os -ojn

Mia patrino ——— lavas ——— mian fraton.
Niaj fratinoj ——— vidis ——- viajn instruistinojn.

You don't have to write sentences in the above word order, but it is the
most common form, and for English-speakers it's easier to learn just
this pattern at first.

Once you realize that “grammar coding” tells you what part each word plays
in a sentence (its function), you could, for poetry or emphasis, arrange
the coded words in any other order without changing the original meaning.

Let's take a look at a couple of examples of different word order and
answer a couple of questions (remember to pay attention to the endings of
the words).


__________________________ extract from here ____________________________

Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto unu)

Mian fraton lavis mia patrino.

1. Who was washed?
Who did the washing?

Instruistinojn viajn fratinoj niaj vidis.

2. Who did the seeing?
Who was seen?

__________________________ extract to here ____________________________


In this 10-lesson course we are going to stick to the subject-verb-object
word order, but in well-written Esperanto texts other word orders are
frequently used for reasons of emphasis and text coherence. If you use
Esperanto you will rapidly acquire a feeling for word order. The best
word order to use depends mainly on the context, so it is difficult to give
precise “rules”.

Let's go on now, right to this lesson's word list below.

Vocabulary, lesson three

Nouns Verbs (infinitives) Adjectives
horo (hour) atendi (to wait for) blanka (white)
jaro (year) fumi (to smoke) blua (blue)
mateno (morning) kuri (to run) bruna (brown)
minuto (minute) sati (to be satisfied) flava (yellow)
nokto (night) promeni (to stroll) griza (gray)
semajno (week) respondi (to answer) nigra (black)
tago (day) soifi (to be thirsty) rugxa (red)
vespero (evening) vivi (to live) verda (green)
demandi (to inquire, ask a question)

Note the difference between demandi (related to questions) and peti
(related to requests or “petitions”). Both can be translated as
“ask” in English.

Remember, j is pronounced like y, so jaro = YAH-row.

Adverbs: Adverbs are like adjectives, but instead of describing nouns,
adverbs describe verbs and adjectives, usually telling how, when, or where.
(Adverbs in English usually end in -ly).

In Esperanto, adverbs derived from other words always end in -e.

We can use the basic idea of a word in different ways by simply changing
the grammar-coded ending:

sano = health sxi havas bonan sanon
sana = healthy sxi estas sana
sani = to be healthy sxi sanas
sane = healthily sxi sane vivas

Adverbs usually precede the word they describe.

Note: The pronunciation of adverbs, ending in “-e”, needs some attention.
In general, every vowel makes up one syllable (sound unit) of an Esperanto
word. Therefore, we must read the two-part sound of “sane” as “SAH-neh”
and not as the one-part sound of the English word “sane”.

Lesson four will concentrate more on the correct sounds of Esperanto.
Right now, let's just say that Esperanto “e” should be pronounced as the
“e” in “met”. Due to different pronunciations throughout the English-
speaking world, it is impossible to give exact Esperanto pronunciation in
writing.


subject thing verb adverb object thing
-a -o -as -e -an -on
-aj -oj -is -ajn -ojn
-os

__________________________ extract from here ____________________________

Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto du)

3. My brother will-stroll in-the-morning (“morningly”).


4. His friend replied warmly.


5. The brown pen writes well (“goodly”).


6. The grey teacher runs badly.


7. Our father smokes in-the-evening (“eveningly”).


8. He loves her.


9. He loves her sister.


10. She loves him.

__________________________ extract to here ____________________________


Numbers (cardinal numbers are not grammar-coded: no endings)

nulo 0 dek 10 tridek 30
unu 1 dek unu 11 tridek unu 31
du 2 dek du 12 tridek du 32
tri 3 dek tri 13 …
kvar 4 dek kvar 14 kvardek 40
kvin 5 … kvindek 50
ses 6 and so on to sesdek 60
sep 7 dudek 20 cent 100
ok 8 dudek unu 21 mil 1 000
naux 9 … miliono 1 000 000


Numbers (ordinal numbers have the ending “-a”, like adjectives, and take
the plural “-j” and object “-n”, like adjectives)

unua first dudeka twentieth
dua second sepdek unua seventy-first
tria third centa hundredth

unue firstly trie thirdly
due secondly kvare fourthly

Note: the “aux” is pronounced as “ow” in cow.

Note: the adverb form of the numbers is sometimes translated as: unue =
in the first place; trie = in the third place, etc.

__________________________ extract from here ____________________________

Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto tri)

11. The first man loves the second woman.


12. The second woman hates the first man.


13. Two boys firstly asked for three cakes.


14. In-the-second-place they asked for lemonade.


15. The shop makes bad brown bread.


16. The shop makes brown bread badly.

__________________________ extract to here ____________________________


Intransitive verbs do not show action from a subject to an object; instead,
intransitive verbs are used to show the state of the subject. Adjectives
after intransitive verbs describe the subject.

Li estas sana. Sxi estas instruisto (or: instruistino).
He is healthy. She is a teacher.

The object “-n” is not used after such verbs.


__________________________ extract from here ____________________________

Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto kvar)

17. Sixty minutes are one hour.


18. Twenty-four hours are one day (and night).


19. Seven days are one week.


20. The third boy is my second son.


If you would like a pronunciation record or other material in Esperanto,
write to your national Esperanto organization. The address is in the
Welcome Letter. This is not mandatory for this lesson series, but hearing
spoken Esperanto is a great help.





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F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E
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Lesson Four

Now let's look at statements, questions, and answers:

A statement: La pano estas bruna.
The bread is brown.

A question: Cxu la pano estas bruna?
Is the bread brown?

The answer: (a) Jes, la pano estas bruna.
(b) Ne, la pano ne estas bruna, gxi estas blanka.

Note: Every question is based on a statement; we identify that statement,
placing the 'doubting' word cxu (literally, 'whether') in front, and then
we are asking “Is this true?” Also note that the word order in Esperanto
is not changed; only the word 'cxu' is placed in front of the statement.

English question: Will the boys sell the cake?

Underlying statement: (The boys will sell the cake.)
(La knaboj vendos la kukon.)

Esperanto question: Cxu la knaboj vendos la kukon?

All 'yes-or-no' questions are handled in the same way.

__________________________ extract from here ____________________________

Ekzercoj, Leciono Kvar (parto unu)

Change the following statements into questions:

Mia filo forgesis la teon. ->

Lia patro faras panon. ->

La tago estas griza. ->

__________________________ extract to here ____________________________

In the first three lessons, you have learned how to write simple statements
correctly, and now know how to make questions and give answers. As soon as
you have learned all the sounds of Esperanto (detailed, as best as possible
in writing, see below) we can start in on conversations, in Lesson Five.
(Remember to complete the exercises at the bottom.)

The Esperanto alphabet:

a b c cx d e f g gx h hx i j jx k l m n o p r s sx t u ux v z

Note that the names of the letters (used when spelling aloud, etc.)
are a, bo, co, cxo, do, e, fo, go, gxo, ho, hxo, i, etc. That is, the
consonants get an 'o' after them, and the name of each vowel is the
sound of the vowel itself. Note that “uxo” is pronounced sort of like
English 'wo'.

There are 26 letters in the English alphabet; 28 in Esperanto. In
Esperanto there is no q, w, x, or y. In Esperanto there are 6 letters not
found in English (all 6 have accent marks): cx, gx, hx, jx, sx [all
circumflexes], and ux [a u-breve].

The Esperanto letters 'j' and 'ux' are not vowels and can combine with real
vowels (a, e, i, o, and u) to make 'vowel glides' which must be learned as
separate sounds (below).

Pronunciation Guide

Remember, in Esperanto: one letter – one sound. No exceptions.

Vowel Sounds (accented/emphasized vowels are capitalized)

a as in Ma, father: blANka sAna grAnda vArma
e as in send, met: bEla plEna vErda pEti
i as in me, three: vIvi Ami trInki fIlo
o as in more, or: Ovo dOmo kIo nOva
u as in two, soon: Unu plUmo sUno butIko

Consonant Sounds (mainly as in English, except:)

c pronounced 'ts' in nests: dAnco leciOno bicIklo
cx pronounced 'ch'in church: cxAmbro sandvIcxo cxokolAdo
g pronounced 'g' in great: sagEto gustUmi geografIo
gx pronounced 'g' in George: mAngxi lOgxi sEgxo
hx pronounced 'ch'in Bach: jAhxto hxOro Ehxo
j pronounced 'y' in yet: jEs jAro jUna
jx pronounced 's' in leisure: jxurnAlo teatrAjxo jxalUzo
sx pronounced 'sh'in shoe: sxAti pOsxo sxUo

ux is used most often in the combination 'aux' or 'eux' (otherwise it has a
'w' sound, as in weather).

Remember: All sounds presented in this Pronunciation Guide are
approximations. They are the closest approximations for North American
English-speakers.

Vowel Glides (diphthongs). The following combinations between a vowel (a,
e, o, u) and 'j' or 'ux' make one sound:

aj pronounced as 'eye': mAjo kAj semAjno
oj pronounced as in 'boy': knAboj vojAgxi gxOjo
ej pronounced as in 'they': plEj mEjlo lernEjo
uj pronounced 'oo-ee' (quickly) tUj AnglUjo monUjo
aux pronounced as in 'cow': nAUX Antaux jxAUXdo
eux pronounced as in 'wayward': EuxrOpo neuxtrAla EuxklIdo

In all the examples above, the vowel of the stressed (or accented) syllable
has been capitalized. This follows the rule without exception that every
word in Esperanto is stressed on the next-to-last syllable.

Here is a list of words (and translations) that represent sounds in
Esperanto [not just those covered above]. Practice them carefully and your
pronunciation will get better and better.

Anglujo England lernejo school
antaux before majo May
acxeti to buy mangxi to eat
biciklo bicycle mejlo mile
cxambro room monujo purse
cxokolado chocolate neuxtrala neutral
danco dance ovo egg
domo house plej most…
ehxo echo plena full
Euxropo Europe posxo pocket
Euxklido Euclid sageto dart
geografio geography sandvicxo sandwich
gustumi to taste segxo seat, chair
gxojo joy suno sun
hxoro choir sxati to like
jahxto yacht sxuo shoe
juna young teatrajxo (theatrical) play
jxaluzo jealousy tuj immediately
jxauxdo Thursday vojagxi to travel
jxurnalo newspaper
kio what (thing)
leciono lesson best advice: practice! practice!
libro book practice!
logxi to reside

__________________________ extract from here ____________________________

Ekzercoj, Leciono Kvar (parto du)

(translate, but don't answer!)

1. Is father making a cake?


2. Did the son forget the milk?


3. Will father sell the cakes?


4. Does a healthy boy drink warm milk?


5. Will the daughter eat a sandwich?


6. Did the new teacher forget your sugar?


7. Do they sell tea and coffee?


8. Did the sick girl write badly?


9. Is he healthy?


10. Are seven days one week?



Answer in Esperanto; use complete sentences, not just jes or ne.

11. Is milk white?


12. Is water dry?


13. Is the sun warm?


14. Is your mother a man?


15. Are you wearing an empty shoe?


16. Do two and two make four? [Use estas]


17. Do you eat water?


18. Is coffee blue?


19. Are seven days one week?


20. Do you drink cakes?


(Sorry about the silly questions, but the answers are easy.)





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F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E
__________________________________________________________________________

Lesson Five

Saluton! (Hello! Greetings!)

Bonan tagon! Good day!
Bonan matenon! Good morning!
Bonan vesperon! Good evening!
Bonan nokton! Good night!

Kiel vi fartas? How are you? (farti = to fare, be)
Bone, dankon. Kaj vi? Fine, thanks. And you?
Suficxe bone. So-so. (literally, sufficiently well)
Ne tre bone. Not so good.
Bonan apetiton! Enjoy your food! (Bon appetit!)
Je via sano! To your health!
Same al vi, dankon. Same to you, thanks.
Gxis la revido. See you later. (literally, until the re-seeing)
Adiaux. Goodbye. (Adieu).

Conversation: If two people can talk about themselves for 5 minutes each,
then they can easily have at least a 10 minute conversation.

By the end of this 10 lesson course, you should have written down all your
vital statistics and personal details (true or false!) and you should know
them by heart.

After that, you should be able to give a brief talk about yourself in
Esperanto, even if you have to prompt yourself with a 'cheat-sheet' in
English.

Let's take a look at an example about John Brown:

Mia nomo estas Johano Bruno. Mi logxas en Usono. Mi komencis lerni
Esperanton antaux kvar semajnoj. Gxi estas tre facila lingvo. Mi logxas
en domo kun mia edzino kaj niaj infanoj. Ni havas unu filinon kaj du
filojn.
Mi havas korespondantojn en tri landoj.

There are 45 very useful words which are a part of a regular system of
correlated words (known technically, therefore, as “correlatives”). The
meaning of any correlative is the combined meaning of the root (beginning)
and the ending: (simple, isn't it?)

ki- [what] -o thing
-a kind of, sort of
ti- [that] -e place
-u one, or person
i- [some] -om quantity (amount)
-am time
cxi- [every] -al reason, for…reason
-el manner, in…way
neni- [no] -es one's; person's

examples:

tio = that thing iam = sometime nenie = no where

Typical correlatives and their equally typical English equivalents:

English Esperanto

how? (in) what manner kiel
when? (at) what time kiam
where? (at, in) what place kie
why? (for) what reason kial
how much? (in) what amount kiom
always (at) every time cxiam
thus (in) that way, manner tiel
nobody no one, no person neniu
somewhere (at) some place ie

Pay attention to the accent: ne-NI-e, KI-u, TI-al, etc.

Note that in English prepositions may be included in the meaning of the
Esperanto correlative.

The endings “a” and “u” take the grammar coding “-n” and/or “-j” whe




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<DIV id=RTEmultiCSSID > F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E<BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> Introduction<BR><BR>WHAT IS ESPERANTO?<BR><BR>Esperanto, the international language, is a language developed to make it<BR>easier for people of different cultures to communicate. Its author, Dr. L.<BR>L. Zamenhof (1859-1917), published his "Lingvo Internacia" in 1887 under<BR>the pseudonym "Dr. Esperanto". It is now spoken by at least two million<BR>people, in over 100 countries. There are thousands of books and over 100<BR>periodicals published currently. But what makes it any more international<BR>than French, English or Russian?<BR><BR>Incorrectly termed 'artificial' (the right word is 'planned'), Esperanto is<BR>specifically intended for international/intercultural use, so those who use<BR>it meet each other on an equal footing, since neither is using his or her<BR>native language. With national languages, the average person isn't able to<BR>express himself as well as a native speaker or the gifted linguist. Thanks<BR>to its simple, logical, regular design, anyone can learn Esperanto fairly<BR>rapidly.<BR><BR>A LIVING LANGUAGE<BR><BR>Esperanto is a living language, used for everything people use any other<BR>language for. But it's much easier to learn than a national language. Even<BR>people who can't remember a word of a language they studied for years in<BR>high school or college need only months of intensive study to become fluent<BR>in Esperanto. It is also more useful than national languages if your goal<BR>in learning a language is to get to know people from different places,<BR>since virtually everyone who speaks Esperanto has learned it for this<BR>reason.<BR><BR>ABOUT THIS COURSE<BR><BR>This course is based on ELNA's Free Postal Course, which is, in turn, based<BR>on a very popular postal course in use today in England. The course is a<BR>bit old-fashioned, and we are working on a more appealing version. In the<BR>meantime, you will have to bear with it. Upon successful completion of the<BR>ten lessons, you will receive a framable Certificate of Completion.<BR><BR>A note about the orthography: To facilitate distribution of this course<BR>over the net, we have chosen to represent the two diacritical marks (the<BR>circumflex or ^, and the breve, a 'reversed circumflex' unavailable in<BR>standard character sets) by adding an x immediately following the<BR>character. Hence the combinations cx, gx, hx, jx, sx, (where x = ^) and ux<BR>(where x = [breve]) should be thought of as single characters.<BR><BR>GETTING CONNECTED<BR><BR>Here are the WWW sites of national Esperanto associations in the major<BR>English-speaking countries. If your country isn't listed, ask us and we<BR>can find the address for you.<BR><BR>Australia:<BR>Australian Esperanto Association<BR><A href="http://www.esperanto.org.au/">http://www.esperanto.org.au/</A><BR><BR>Britain:<BR>British Esperanto Association<BR><A href="http://www.esperanto.demon.co.uk/">http://www.esperanto.demon.co.uk/</A><BR><BR>Canada:<BR>Canadian Esperanto Association<BR><A href="http://www.sentex.net/~engcorp/kea/">http://www.sentex.net/~engcorp/kea/</A><BR><BR>India:<BR><A href="mailto:helpo@giaspn01.vsnl.net.in">mailto:helpo@giaspn01.vsnl.net.in</A><BR><BR>Ireland:<BR><A href="http://www.selfgrow.com/esperanto/">http://www.selfgrow.com/esperanto/</A><BR><BR>New Zealand:<BR>Esperanto Association of New Zealand<BR><A href="mailto:neelam@voyager.co.nz">mailto:neelam@voyager.co.nz</A><BR><BR>USA:<BR>Esperanto League for North America<BR><A href="http://www.esperanto-usa.org/">http://www.esperanto-usa.org/</A><BR><BR>The World Association is:<BR>Universala Esperanto-Asocio<BR><A href="http://wwwtios.cs.utwente.nl/esperanto/org/uea/">http://wwwtios.cs.utwente.nl/esperanto/org/uea/</A><BR><BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> Lesson One<BR><BR>Language is all about things (nouns) and their actions (verbs) of energetic<BR>things:<BR><BR> One thing... Acts on... Another thing<BR><BR> birdo kaptas... insekton.<BR> a bird catches... an insect.<BR><BR> subject noun verb object noun<BR><BR>Esperanto is "grammar-coded" - you can tell what part each word plays<BR>in a sentence from the word endings:<BR><BR> -o -on<BR> single subject noun single object noun<BR><BR> -oj -ojn<BR> plural subject noun plural object noun<BR><BR>To show when the action takes place, the verb tense (time) is changed by<BR>putting these endings on the verb roots:<BR><BR> present tense --as describes it as it happens<BR> past tense --is shows an action completed<BR> future tense --os action still to begin<BR><BR> Birdoj kaptis insektojn.<BR> Birds caught insects.<BR><BR> Birdoj kaptos insektojn.<BR> Birds will-catch insects.<BR><BR>Every noun and every verb follows the above rules without exception.<BR><BR>In Esperanto, things have no gender (they are not male or female, as in<BR>many other languages.) There is only one word for 'the', no matter if the<BR>noun is singular or plural, subject or object. Therefore:<BR><BR> La birdoj kaptas la insektojn.<BR> La birdo kaptis la insekton.<BR><BR>In Esperanto the word order matters less than in English. All the<BR>following sentences describe the same action (only the emphasis is<BR>changed):<BR><BR> Viro legas libron. Viro libron legas.<BR> Libron legas viro. Libron viro legas.<BR> Legas viro libron. Legas libron viro.<BR><BR> A man reads a book.<BR><BR>Here are some words in Esperanto (the apostrophe indicates an incomplete<BR>word, a root):<BR><BR> Nouns Verbs (roots) More nouns<BR> amiko (friend) far' (do, make) kafo (coffee)<BR> filo (son) forges' (forget) kuko (cake)<BR> frato (brother) hav' (have) lakto (milk)<BR> instruisto (teacher) trink' (drink) pano (bread)<BR> knabo (boy) vend' (sell) sukero (sugar)<BR> patro (father) vid' (see) teo (tea)<BR><BR>Each Esperanto letter has only one sound, always. Here is a guide to some<BR>of the sounds. The stress is always on the next-to-last syllable of a<BR>word.<BR><BR> A E I O U<BR> palm there three glory too<BR><BR>c = ts (in lots); oj = oy (in boy); G = g (in go)<BR>kn are always pronounced separately: k-nabo<BR><BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> Study Aid for Lesson One<BR><BR>Read Lesson 1 thoroughly, but before trying the exercises below,<BR>try these translations and check your answers with ours.<BR><BR>(We have supplied some words and endings to help you get started).<BR><BR>1. The friend will-sell milk.<BR><BR><BR> lakton.<BR><BR>2. Mother drinks coffee with milk and sugar.<BR><BR><BR> Patrino -n kun kaj<BR><BR>3. The teachers forgot the tea.<BR><BR><BR> -j -n.<BR><BR>4. The boys will-make the cake.<BR><BR><BR> -n.<BR><BR>5. La knabinoj vidos la instruiston. [knabinoj = girls]<BR><BR><BR>6. La instruisto vidis la knabinojn.<BR><BR><BR>7. La filoj trinkas teon sen lakto. [sen = without]<BR><BR><BR>8. La birdoj vidis la insektojn.<BR><BR><BR>After checking these sentences, do the exercises of Lesson 1.<BR>If there is anything you do not understand, be sure to ask your tutor.<BR><BR>We will try to be prompt, but be patient, and most of all:<BR>Bonvenon al Esperanto (Welcome to Esperanto)!<BR><BR><BR>A
nswers to the above exercises<BR><BR>1. La amiko vendos lakton.<BR>2. Patrino trinkas kafon kun lakto kaj sukero.<BR>3. La instruistoj forgesis la teon.<BR>4. La knaboj faros la kukon.<BR>5. The girls will see the teacher.<BR>6. The teacher saw the girls.<BR>7. The sons drink tea without milk.<BR>8. The birds saw the insects.<BR><BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Unu (Exercises, Lesson One)<BR><BR>Take your time and translate the following sentences into Esperanto.<BR>Type your answers between the questions.<BR><BR> Examples: The men sold cakes.<BR> La viroj vendis kukojn.<BR><BR> The man sold a cake.<BR> La viro vendis kukon.<BR><BR>[Note]<BR><BR>1. Father makes a cake.<BR><BR><BR>2. The boy will-have the sugar.<BR><BR><BR>3. The son forgot the milk.<BR><BR><BR>4. The boys drink tea.<BR><BR><BR>5. The friend sold the bread.<BR><BR><BR>6. The teacher sees a boy.<BR><BR><BR>7. The son has a friend.<BR><BR><BR>8. The brother made bread.<BR><BR><BR>9. The boys will-have cake.<BR><BR><BR>10. Father forgot the sugar.<BR><BR><BR>11. The boys had friends.<BR><BR><BR>12. The sons saw the bread.<BR><BR><BR>13. The brothers sell sugar.<BR><BR><BR>14. The teacher forgets the boy.<BR><BR><BR>15. The friend will-drink milk.<BR><BR><BR>16. The sons are-making cakes.<BR><BR><BR>17. Father will-sell the cake.<BR><BR><BR>18. The friend had bread.<BR><BR><BR>19. The boys will-see the teachers.<BR><BR><BR>20. The teachers drink coffee.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract to here ____________________________<BR><BR>Now, don't forget to add your name and e-mail address, and mail these<BR>exercises to the address for your tutor in the Welcome Letter, with<BR>subject: 'FEC ekz 1'.<BR><BR>Well, we hope we haven't scared you off in this first meeting with<BR>Esperanto. Just remember - the language ability you used in the above<BR>exercises might take months to reach in secondary school French or Spanish.<BR><BR>The Free Esperanto Course begins simply, but by Lesson 10 you will<BR>understand sophisticated Esperanto with complex syntax.<BR><BR>Upon satisfactory completion of the series of ten lessons, you will receive<BR>a framable 'Certificate of Completion'.<BR><BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR>While waiting for a reply from your tutor, you can learn some numbers<BR>and colors:<BR><BR>0 nulo (say: noo-lo)<BR>1 unu (say: oo-noo) flava (FLAH-vah) yellow<BR>2 du (say: doo) verda (VER-dah) green<BR>3 tri (say: t-ri) blua (BLOO-ah) blue<BR>4 kvar blanka (BLAN-ka) white<BR>5 kvin nigra (NEE-gra) black<BR>6 ses griza (GREE-zah) grey<BR>7 sep bruna (BROO-nah) brown<BR>8 ok rugxa (ROO-djah) red<BR>9 naux (say: now) ("gx" as in "gem", "gentle")<BR>10 dek<BR>11 dek unu<BR> ...<BR>20 dudek<BR>21 dudek unu<BR> ...<BR>30 tridek<BR>31 tridek unu<BR> ...<BR>100 cent (say: tsent)<br><DIV> </DIV><DIV><FONT face=Arial></FONT> </DIV><DIV><BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E<BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> Lesson Two<BR><BR>Thanks for trying Lesson 1. By now you should have received corrections<BR>to the exercises of the first lesson. Here is the next lesson. Keep it<BR>up!<BR><BR>Let's review the "grammar-coding" for a second:<BR><BR> subject thing(s) action object thing(s)<BR> -o -as -on<BR> -is<BR> -oj -os -ojn<BR><BR>Two-thirds of the pattern so far deals with "things" (nouns). Now let's<BR>take a look at how to describe these things: good coffee, good tea<BR>(adjectives).<BR><BR>Something that describes, such as "good," is called an adjective. In<BR>Esperanto, adjectives are grammar coded with an "-a" ending.<BR><BR>As in some other languages (but not in English) the adjective ending ("-a")<BR>has to "agree" with the noun it describes. That is, if the noun is plural,<BR>the adjective must also be plural. If the noun is an object ("-n"), the<BR>adjective must also be an object.<BR><BR> subject thing(s) action object thing(s)<BR> bona patro havos bonan filon<BR> a good father will have a good son<BR><BR> bonaj patroj havos bonajn filojn<BR> good fathers will have good sons<BR><BR>(Note: "aj" is pronounced like the English word "eye".)<BR><BR>Vocabulary: In each lesson we will introduce about twenty new words to<BR>you; learn these but remember to review the words in the previous lesson.<BR>Use the words below to practice what you've just learned.<BR>The exercises in this lesson are split into three parts.<BR><BR>Vocabulary, lesson two<BR><BR> Adjectives Nouns Verb Roots<BR> bela (beautiful) akvo (water) am' (love)<BR> granda (big) butiko (shop) lav' (wash)<BR> nova (new) limonado (lemonade) pet' (ask, request)<BR> sana (healthy) papero (paper) port' (carry, wear)<BR> seka (dry) plumo (pen) renkont' (meet)<BR> varma (warm) taso (cup) skrib' (write)<BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Du (parto unu)<BR><BR>1. A healthy boy drinks warm milk.<BR><BR><BR>2. The new shop sells dry cakes.<BR><BR><BR>3. The big teacher met the new friends.<BR><BR><BR>4. The good friends will-make a beautiful cake.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract to here ____________________________<BR><BR><BR>Reminder:<BR> -a -o -as -an -on<BR> -aj -oj -is -ajn -ojn<BR> -os<BR><BR>We haven't been able to give you enough vocabulary to let us vary these<BR>exercises very much, but in Esperanto the system of regular word building<BR>(with prefixes and suffixes) lets us expand our vocabulary with little<BR>effort. For example, the "mal-" makes words of opposite meaning:<BR><BR> bona = good malbona = bad<BR> pura = clean malpura = dirty<BR> sana = healthy malsana = ill, sick<BR> am' = love malam' = hate<BR> amiko = friend (male) malamiko = enemy (male)<BR><BR>and similarly the "-in-" makes words specifically female.<BR><BR> patro = father patrino = mother<BR><BR> and thus for all female living creatures:<BR><BR> kato = cat katino = female cat<BR><BR>The 'vir' prefix is the original way to mark something as explicitly male:<BR>virkato. Most people avoid using the root form as a 'male' form. It is rare<BR>that you have to mark sex - it is proper to say, for example, Sally estas<BR>instruisto, instead of saying Sally estas instruistino.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Du (parto du)<BR><BR>5. The small girl met the ugly sisters.<BR><BR><BR>6. The old cup has new lemonade.<BR><BR><BR>7. The new cup has old milk.<BR><BR><BR>8. Mother will-wash the small cups.<BR><BR><BR>9. The small boy carried the new bread.<BR><BR><BR>10. Cold water washes a small boy.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract to here ____________________________<BR><BR><BR>"Ne" in front of any verb makes it negative, the action that doesn't<BR>happe
n, or didn't happen, or won't happen.<BR><BR>ne havas = doesn't (don't) have; ne faras = doesn't do<BR><BR>Here is just one verb ("to be") displayed in the usual way (all Esperanto<BR>verbs follow the same rule!):<BR><BR>General form (infinitive) to be esti<BR><BR>Present tense (-as form) I am mi estas<BR> you are vi estas<BR> he is li estas<BR> she is sxi estas<BR> it is gxi estas<BR> we are ni estas<BR> you are vi estas<BR> they are ili estas<BR> one is oni estas<BR><BR>est' is the verb root and always appears wherever the verb is used. Does<BR>this verb even have a root in English? (am, is, are)<BR><BR>In the above verb display, note:<BR><BR> sxi (she) is pronounced exactly like the English "she"<BR><BR> gxi (it) is pronounced like the English "gee!", as in "Jeep"<BR><BR> vi (you) is both singular and plural, like the English "you."<BR><BR> (There is a word "ci", singular, but it is used much as the English<BR> singular "thou" - not very often!)<BR><BR> Note, too, that although pronouns do not end in -o when they are<BR> "subject things", they do take the -n when they are "object things":<BR><BR> La patrino lavas la knabon. Sxi lavas lin.<BR> The mother washes the boy. She washes him.<BR><BR>Now that we have learned the pronouns:<BR><BR> mi vi li sxi gxi ni vi ili oni<BR> I you he she it we you they one<BR><BR>we can form the possessive adjectives:<BR><BR> mia via lia sxia gxia nia via ilia (pronounced ee-LEE-a) onia<BR> my your his her its our your their one's<BR><BR>which are really adjectives because they identify (describe) the nouns they<BR>are attached to. Mia plumo = my pen. The ending "-a" on possessive<BR>adjectives follows the same rules about agreement as adjectives:<BR><BR> Mia amiko amas mian fratinon.<BR><BR> Miaj amikoj amas miajn fratinojn.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Du (parto tri)<BR><BR>11. I forgot my pen.<BR><BR><BR>12. We don't have paper.<BR><BR><BR>13. My daughter requested warm milk.<BR><BR><BR>14. Her old friend didn't write.<BR><BR><BR>15. You will meet their old friends.<BR><BR><BR>16. She will have the warm water.<BR><BR><BR>17. Your new teacher forgot your sugar.<BR><BR><BR>18. The boys hate our new teacher.<BR><BR><BR>19. They sell tea and (kaj) coffee.<BR><BR><BR>20. We will sell her cake and his pens.<BR><BR><BR>Note: kaj (and) is pronounced like the ki in kite.</DIV><DIV> </DIV><DIV><FONT face=Arial></FONT> </DIV><DIV><BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E<BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> Lesson Three<BR><BR>It may seem like we packed a lot into Lesson Two, but here are the main<BR>things you have learned so far:<BR><BR> subject thing(s) action object thing(s)<BR> -o -as -on<BR> -is<BR> -oj -os -ojn<BR><BR> Mia patrino --------- lavas --------- mian fraton.<BR> Niaj fratinoj --------- vidis ------- viajn instruistinojn.<BR><BR>You don't have to write sentences in the above word order, but it is the<BR>most common form, and for English-speakers it's easier to learn just<BR>this pattern at first.<BR><BR>Once you realize that "grammar coding" tells you what part each word plays<BR>in a sentence (its function), you could, for poetry or emphasis, arrange<BR>the coded words in any other order without changing the original meaning.<BR><BR>Let's take a look at a couple of examples of different word order and<BR>answer a couple of questions (remember to pay attention to the endings of<BR>the words).<BR><BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto unu)<BR><BR> Mian fraton lavis mia patrino.<BR><BR>1. Who was washed?<BR> Who did the washing?<BR><BR> Instruistinojn viajn fratinoj niaj vidis.<BR><BR>2. Who did the seeing?<BR> Who was seen?<BR><BR>__________________________ extract to here ____________________________<BR><BR><BR>In this 10-lesson course we are going to stick to the subject-verb-object<BR>word order, but in well-written Esperanto texts other word orders are<BR>frequently used for reasons of emphasis and text coherence. If you use<BR>Esperanto you will rapidly acquire a feeling for word order. The best<BR>word order to use depends mainly on the context, so it is difficult to give<BR>precise "rules".<BR><BR>Let's go on now, right to this lesson's word list below.<BR><BR>Vocabulary, lesson three<BR><BR>Nouns Verbs (infinitives) Adjectives<BR>horo (hour) atendi (to wait for) blanka (white)<BR>jaro (year) fumi (to smoke) blua (blue)<BR>mateno (morning) kuri (to run) bruna (brown)<BR>minuto (minute) sati (to be satisfied) flava (yellow)<BR>nokto (night) promeni (to stroll) griza (gray)<BR>semajno (week) respondi (to answer) nigra (black)<BR>tago (day) soifi (to be thirsty) rugxa (red)<BR>vespero (evening) vivi (to live) verda (green)<BR> demandi (to inquire, ask a question)<BR><BR>Note the difference between demandi (related to questions) and peti<BR>(related to requests or "petitions"). Both can be translated as<BR>"ask" in English.<BR><BR>Remember, j is pronounced like y, so jaro = YAH-row.<BR><BR>Adverbs: Adverbs are like adjectives, but instead of describing nouns,<BR>adverbs describe verbs and adjectives, usually telling how, when, or where.<BR>(Adverbs in English usually end in -ly).<BR><BR>In Esperanto, adverbs derived from other words always end in -e.<BR><BR>We can use the basic idea of a word in different ways by simply changing<BR>the grammar-coded ending:<BR><BR> sano = health sxi havas bonan sanon<BR> sana = healthy sxi estas sana<BR> sani = to be healthy sxi sanas<BR> sane = healthily sxi sane vivas<BR><BR>Adverbs usually precede the word they describe.<BR><BR>Note: The pronunciation of adverbs, ending in "-e", needs some attention.<BR>In general, every vowel makes up one syllable (sound unit) of an Esperanto<BR>word. Therefore, we must read the two-part sound of "sane" as "SAH-neh"<BR>and not as the one-part sound of the English word "sane".<BR><BR>Lesson four will concentrate more on the correct sounds of Esperanto.<BR>Right now, let's just say that Esperanto "e" should be pronounced as the<BR>"e" in "met". Due to different pronunciations throughout the English-<BR>speaking world, it is impossible to give exact Esperanto pronunciation in<BR>writing.<BR><BR><BR> subject thing verb adverb object thing<BR> -a -o -as -e -an -on<BR> -aj -oj -is -ajn -ojn<BR> -os<BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto du)<BR><BR>3. My brother will-stroll in-the-morning ("morningly").<BR><BR><BR>4. His friend replied warmly.<BR><BR><BR>5. The brown pen writes well ("goodly").<BR><BR><BR>6. The grey teacher runs badly.<BR><BR><BR>7. Our father smokes in-the-evening ("eveningly").<BR><BR><BR>8. He loves her.<BR><BR><BR>9. He loves her sister.<BR><BR><BR>10. She loves him.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract to here ____________________________<BR><BR><BR>Numbers (cardinal numb
ers are not grammar-coded: no endings)<BR><BR>nulo 0 dek 10 tridek 30<BR>unu 1 dek unu 11 tridek unu 31<BR>du 2 dek du 12 tridek du 32<BR>tri 3 dek tri 13 ...<BR>kvar 4 dek kvar 14 kvardek 40<BR>kvin 5 ... kvindek 50<BR>ses 6 and so on to sesdek 60<BR>sep 7 dudek 20 cent 100<BR>ok 8 dudek unu 21 mil 1 000<BR>naux 9 ... miliono 1 000 000<BR><BR><BR>Numbers (ordinal numbers have the ending "-a", like adjectives, and take<BR>the plural "-j" and object "-n", like adjectives)<BR><BR> unua first dudeka twentieth<BR> dua second sepdek unua seventy-first<BR> tria third centa hundredth<BR><BR> unue firstly trie thirdly<BR> due secondly kvare fourthly<BR><BR>Note: the "aux" is pronounced as "ow" in cow.<BR><BR>Note: the adverb form of the numbers is sometimes translated as: unue =<BR>in the first place; trie = in the third place, etc.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto tri)<BR><BR>11. The first man loves the second woman.<BR><BR><BR>12. The second woman hates the first man.<BR><BR><BR>13. Two boys firstly asked for three cakes.<BR><BR><BR>14. In-the-second-place they asked for lemonade.<BR><BR><BR>15. The shop makes bad brown bread.<BR><BR><BR>16. The shop makes brown bread badly.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract to here ____________________________<BR><BR><BR>Intransitive verbs do not show action from a subject to an object; instead,<BR>intransitive verbs are used to show the state of the subject. Adjectives<BR>after intransitive verbs describe the subject.<BR><BR> Li estas sana. Sxi estas instruisto (or: instruistino).<BR> He is healthy. She is a teacher.<BR><BR>The object "-n" is not used after such verbs.<BR><BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto kvar)<BR><BR>17. Sixty minutes are one hour.<BR><BR><BR>18. Twenty-four hours are one day (and night).<BR><BR><BR>19. Seven days are one week.<BR><BR><BR>20. The third boy is my second son.<BR><BR><BR>If you would like a pronunciation record or other material in Esperanto,<BR>write to your national Esperanto organization. The address is in the<BR>Welcome Letter. This is not mandatory for this lesson series, but hearing<BR>spoken Esperanto is a great help.<BR><BR><BR><BR><BR><BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E<BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> Lesson Four<BR><BR>Now let's look at statements, questions, and answers:<BR><BR>A statement: La pano estas bruna.<BR> The bread is brown.<BR><BR>A question: Cxu la pano estas bruna?<BR> Is the bread brown?<BR><BR>The answer: (a) Jes, la pano estas bruna.<BR> (b) Ne, la pano ne estas bruna, gxi estas blanka.<BR><BR>Note: Every question is based on a statement; we identify that statement,<BR>placing the 'doubting' word cxu (literally, 'whether') in front, and then<BR>we are asking "Is this true?" Also note that the word order in Esperanto<BR>is not changed; only the word 'cxu' is placed in front of the statement.<BR><BR>English question: Will the boys sell the cake?<BR><BR>Underlying statement: (The boys will sell the cake.)<BR> (La knaboj vendos la kukon.)<BR><BR>Esperanto question: Cxu la knaboj vendos la kukon?<BR><BR>All 'yes-or-no' questions are handled in the same way.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Kvar (parto unu)<BR><BR>Change the following statements into questions:<BR><BR>Mia filo forgesis la teon. -><BR><BR>Lia patro faras panon. -><BR><BR>La tago estas griza. -><BR><BR>__________________________ extract to here ____________________________<BR><BR>In the first three lessons, you have learned how to write simple statements<BR>correctly, and now know how to make questions and give answers. As soon as<BR>you have learned all the sounds of Esperanto (detailed, as best as possible<BR>in writing, see below) we can start in on conversations, in Lesson Five.<BR>(Remember to complete the exercises at the bottom.)<BR><BR>The Esperanto alphabet:<BR><BR>a b c cx d e f g gx h hx i j jx k l m n o p r s sx t u ux v z<BR><BR>Note that the names of the letters (used when spelling aloud, etc.)<BR>are a, bo, co, cxo, do, e, fo, go, gxo, ho, hxo, i, etc. That is, the<BR>consonants get an 'o' after them, and the name of each vowel is the<BR>sound of the vowel itself. Note that "uxo" is pronounced sort of like<BR>English 'wo'.<BR><BR>There are 26 letters in the English alphabet; 28 in Esperanto. In<BR>Esperanto there is no q, w, x, or y. In Esperanto there are 6 letters not<BR>found in English (all 6 have accent marks): cx, gx, hx, jx, sx [all<BR>circumflexes], and ux [a u-breve].<BR><BR>The Esperanto letters 'j' and 'ux' are not vowels and can combine with real<BR>vowels (a, e, i, o, and u) to make 'vowel glides' which must be learned as<BR>separate sounds (below).<BR><BR>Pronunciation Guide<BR><BR>Remember, in Esperanto: one letter - one sound. No exceptions.<BR><BR>Vowel Sounds (accented/emphasized vowels are capitalized)<BR><BR>a as in Ma, father: blANka sAna grAnda vArma<BR>e as in send, met: bEla plEna vErda pEti<BR>i as in me, three: vIvi Ami trInki fIlo<BR>o as in more, or: Ovo dOmo kIo nOva<BR>u as in two, soon: Unu plUmo sUno butIko<BR><BR>Consonant Sounds (mainly as in English, except:)<BR><BR>c pronounced 'ts' in nests: dAnco leciOno bicIklo<BR>cx pronounced 'ch'in church: cxAmbro sandvIcxo cxokolAdo<BR>g pronounced 'g' in great: sagEto gustUmi geografIo<BR>gx pronounced 'g' in George: mAngxi lOgxi sEgxo<BR>hx pronounced 'ch'in Bach: jAhxto hxOro Ehxo<BR>j pronounced 'y' in yet: jEs jAro jUna<BR>jx pronounced 's' in leisure: jxurnAlo teatrAjxo jxalUzo<BR>sx pronounced 'sh'in shoe: sxAti pOsxo sxUo<BR><BR>ux is used most often in the combination 'aux' or 'eux' (otherwise it has a<BR>'w' sound, as in weather).<BR><BR>Remember: All sounds presented in this Pronunciation Guide are<BR>approximations. They are the closest approximations for North American<BR>English-speakers.<BR><BR>Vowel Glides (diphthongs). The following combinations between a vowel (a,<BR>e, o, u) and 'j' or 'ux' make one sound:<BR><BR>aj pronounced as 'eye': mAjo kAj semAjno<BR>oj pronounced as in 'boy': knAboj vojAgxi gxOjo<BR>ej pronounced as in 'they': plEj mEjlo lernEjo<BR>uj pronounced 'oo-ee' (quickly) tUj AnglUjo monUjo<BR>aux pronounced as in 'cow': nAUX Antaux jxAUXdo<BR>eux pronounced as in 'wayward': EuxrOpo neuxtrAla EuxklIdo<BR><BR>In all the examples above, the vowel of the stressed (or accented) syllable<BR>has been capitalized. This follows the rule without exception that every<BR>word in Esperanto is stressed on the next-to-last syllable.<BR><BR>Here is a list of words (and translations) that represent sounds in<BR>Esperanto [not just those covered above]. Practice them carefully and your<BR>pronunciation will get better and better.<BR><BR>Anglujo Engl
and lernejo school<BR>antaux before majo May<BR>acxeti to buy mangxi to eat<BR>biciklo bicycle mejlo mile<BR>cxambro room monujo purse<BR>cxokolado chocolate neuxtrala neutral<BR>danco dance ovo egg<BR>domo house plej most...<BR>ehxo echo plena full<BR>Euxropo Europe posxo pocket<BR>Euxklido Euclid sageto dart<BR>geografio geography sandvicxo sandwich<BR>gustumi to taste segxo seat, chair<BR>gxojo joy suno sun<BR>hxoro choir sxati to like<BR>jahxto yacht sxuo shoe<BR>juna young teatrajxo (theatrical) play<BR>jxaluzo jealousy tuj immediately<BR>jxauxdo Thursday vojagxi to travel<BR>jxurnalo newspaper<BR>kio what (thing)<BR>leciono lesson best advice: practice! practice!<BR>libro book practice!<BR>logxi to reside<BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Kvar (parto du)<BR><BR>(translate, but don't answer!)<BR><BR>1. Is father making a cake?<BR><BR><BR>2. Did the son forget the milk?<BR><BR><BR>3. Will father sell the cakes?<BR><BR><BR>4. Does a healthy boy drink warm milk?<BR><BR><BR>5. Will the daughter eat a sandwich?<BR><BR><BR>6. Did the new teacher forget your sugar?<BR><BR><BR>7. Do they sell tea and coffee?<BR><BR><BR>8. Did the sick girl write badly?<BR><BR><BR>9. Is he healthy?<BR><BR><BR>10. Are seven days one week?<BR><BR><BR><BR>Answer in Esperanto; use complete sentences, not just jes or ne.<BR><BR>11. Is milk white?<BR><BR><BR>12. Is water dry?<BR><BR><BR>13. Is the sun warm?<BR><BR><BR>14. Is your mother a man?<BR><BR><BR>15. Are you wearing an empty shoe?<BR><BR><BR>16. Do two and two make four? [Use estas]<BR><BR><BR>17. Do you eat water?<BR><BR><BR>18. Is coffee blue?<BR><BR><BR>19. Are seven days one week?<BR><BR><BR>20. Do you drink cakes?<BR><BR><BR>(Sorry about the silly questions, but the answers are easy.)<BR><BR><BR><BR><BR><BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E<BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> Lesson Five<BR><BR>Saluton! (Hello! Greetings!)<BR><BR>Bonan tagon! Good day!<BR>Bonan matenon! Good morning!<BR>Bonan vesperon! Good evening!<BR>Bonan nokton! Good night!<BR><BR>Kiel vi fartas? How are you? (farti = to fare, be)<BR>Bone, dankon. Kaj vi? Fine, thanks. And you?<BR>Suficxe bone. So-so. (literally, sufficiently well)<BR>Ne tre bone. Not so good.<BR>Bonan apetiton! Enjoy your food! (Bon appetit!)<BR>Je via sano! To your health!<BR>Same al vi, dankon. Same to you, thanks.<BR>Gxis la revido. See you later. (literally, until the re-seeing)<BR>Adiaux. Goodbye. (Adieu).<BR><BR>Conversation: If two people can talk about themselves for 5 minutes each,<BR>then they can easily have at least a 10 minute conversation.<BR><BR>By the end of this 10 lesson course, you should have written down all your<BR>vital statistics and personal details (true or false!) and you should know<BR>them by heart.<BR><BR>After that, you should be able to give a brief talk about yourself in<BR>Esperanto, even if you have to prompt yourself with a 'cheat-sheet' in<BR>English.<BR><BR>Let's take a look at an example about John Brown:<BR><BR> Mia nomo estas Johano Bruno. Mi logxas en Usono. Mi komencis lerni<BR>Esperanton antaux kvar semajnoj. Gxi estas tre facila lingvo. Mi logxas<BR>en domo kun mia edzino kaj niaj infanoj. Ni havas unu filinon kaj du<BR>filojn.<BR> Mi havas korespondantojn en tri landoj.<BR><BR>There are 45 very useful words which are a part of a regular system of<BR>correlated words (known technically, therefore, as "correlatives"). The<BR>meaning of any correlative is the combined meaning of the root (beginning)<BR>and the ending: (simple, isn't it?)<BR><BR> ki- [what] -o thing<BR> -a kind of, sort of<BR> ti- [that] -e place<BR> -u one, or person<BR> i- [some] -om quantity (amount)<BR> -am time<BR> cxi- [every] -al reason, for...reason<BR> -el manner, in...way<BR>neni- [no] -es one's; person's<BR><BR>examples:<BR><BR>tio = that thing iam = sometime nenie = no where<BR><BR>Typical correlatives and their equally typical English equivalents:<BR><BR> English Esperanto<BR><BR> how? (in) what manner kiel<BR> when? (at) what time kiam<BR> where? (at, in) what place kie<BR> why? (for) what reason kial<BR> how much? (in) what amount kiom<BR> always (at) every time cxiam<BR> thus (in) that way, manner tiel<BR> nobody no one, no person neniu<BR> somewhere (at) some place ie<BR><BR>Pay attention to the accent: ne-NI-e, KI-u, TI-al, etc.<BR><BR>Note that in English prepositions may be included in the meaning of the<BR>Esperanto correlative.<BR><BR>The endings "a" and "u" take the grammar coding "-n" and/or "-j" whe

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<DIV id=RTEmultiCSSID > F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E<BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> Introduction<BR><BR>WHAT IS ESPERANTO?<BR><BR>Esperanto, the international language, is a language developed to make it<BR>easier for people of different cultures to communicate. Its author, Dr. L.<BR>L. Zamenhof (1859-1917), published his "Lingvo Internacia" in 1887 under<BR>the pseudonym "Dr. Esperanto". It is now spoken by at least two million<BR>people, in over 100 countries. There are thousands of books and over 100<BR>periodicals published currently. But what makes it any more international<BR>than French, English or Russian?<BR><BR>Incorrectly termed 'artificial' (the right word is 'planned'), Esperanto is<BR>specifically intended for international/intercultural use, so those who use<BR>it meet each other on an equal footing, since neither is using his or her<BR>native language. With national languages, the average person isn't able to<BR>express himself as well as a native speaker or the gifted linguist. Thanks<BR>to its simple, logical, regular design, anyone can learn Esperanto fairly<BR>rapidly.<BR><BR>A LIVING LANGUAGE<BR><BR>Esperanto is a living language, used for everything people use any other<BR>language for. But it's much easier to learn than a national language. Even<BR>people who can't remember a word of a language they studied for years in<BR>high school or college need only months of intensive study to become fluent<BR>in Esperanto. It is also more useful than national languages if your goal<BR>in learning a language is to get to know people from different places,<BR>since virtually everyone who speaks Esperanto has learned it for this<BR>reason.<BR><BR>ABOUT THIS COURSE<BR><BR>This course is based on ELNA's Free Postal Course, which is, in turn, based<BR>on a very popular postal course in use today in England. The course is a<BR>bit old-fashioned, and we are working on a more appealing version. In the<BR>meantime, you will have to bear with it. Upon successful completion of the<BR>ten lessons, you will receive a framable Certificate of Completion.<BR><BR>A note about the orthography: To facilitate distribution of this course<BR>over the net, we have chosen to represent the two diacritical marks (the<BR>circumflex or ^, and the breve, a 'reversed circumflex' unavailable in<BR>standard character sets) by adding an x immediately following the<BR>character. Hence the combinations cx, gx, hx, jx, sx, (where x = ^) and ux<BR>(where x = [breve]) should be thought of as single characters.<BR><BR>GETTING CONNECTED<BR><BR>Here are the WWW sites of national Esperanto associations in the major<BR>English-speaking countries. If your country isn't listed, ask us and we<BR>can find the address for you.<BR><BR>Australia:<BR>Australian Esperanto Association<BR><A href="http://www.esperanto.org.au/">http://www.esperanto.org.au/</A><BR><BR>Britain:<BR>British Esperanto Association<BR><A href="http://www.esperanto.demon.co.uk/">http://www.esperanto.demon.co.uk/</A><BR><BR>Canada:<BR>Canadian Esperanto Association<BR><A href="http://www.sentex.net/~engcorp/kea/">http://www.sentex.net/~engcorp/kea/</A><BR><BR>India:<BR><A href="mailto:helpo@giaspn01.vsnl.net.in">mailto:helpo@giaspn01.vsnl.net.in</A><BR><BR>Ireland:<BR><A href="http://www.selfgrow.com/esperanto/">http://www.selfgrow.com/esperanto/</A><BR><BR>New Zealand:<BR>Esperanto Association of New Zealand<BR><A href="mailto:neelam@voyager.co.nz">mailto:neelam@voyager.co.nz</A><BR><BR>USA:<BR>Esperanto League for North America<BR><A href="http://www.esperanto-usa.org/">http://www.esperanto-usa.org/</A><BR><BR>The World Association is:<BR>Universala Esperanto-Asocio<BR><A href="http://wwwtios.cs.utwente.nl/esperanto/org/uea/">http://wwwtios.cs.utwente.nl/esperanto/org/uea/</A><BR><BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> Lesson One<BR><BR>Language is all about things (nouns) and their actions (verbs) of energetic<BR>things:<BR><BR> One thing... Acts on... Another thing<BR><BR> birdo kaptas... insekton.<BR> a bird catches... an insect.<BR><BR> subject noun verb object noun<BR><BR>Esperanto is "grammar-coded" - you can tell what part each word plays<BR>in a sentence from the word endings:<BR><BR> -o -on<BR> single subject noun single object noun<BR><BR> -oj -ojn<BR> plural subject noun plural object noun<BR><BR>To show when the action takes place, the verb tense (time) is changed by<BR>putting these endings on the verb roots:<BR><BR> present tense --as describes it as it happens<BR> past tense --is shows an action completed<BR> future tense --os action still to begin<BR><BR> Birdoj kaptis insektojn.<BR> Birds caught insects.<BR><BR> Birdoj kaptos insektojn.<BR> Birds will-catch insects.<BR><BR>Every noun and every verb follows the above rules without exception.<BR><BR>In Esperanto, things have no gender (they are not male or female, as in<BR>many other languages.) There is only one word for 'the', no matter if the<BR>noun is singular or plural, subject or object. Therefore:<BR><BR> La birdoj kaptas la insektojn.<BR> La birdo kaptis la insekton.<BR><BR>In Esperanto the word order matters less than in English. All the<BR>following sentences describe the same action (only the emphasis is<BR>changed):<BR><BR> Viro legas libron. Viro libron legas.<BR> Libron legas viro. Libron viro legas.<BR> Legas viro libron. Legas libron viro.<BR><BR> A man reads a book.<BR><BR>Here are some words in Esperanto (the apostrophe indicates an incomplete<BR>word, a root):<BR><BR> Nouns Verbs (roots) More nouns<BR> amiko (friend) far' (do, make) kafo (coffee)<BR> filo (son) forges' (forget) kuko (cake)<BR> frato (brother) hav' (have) lakto (milk)<BR> instruisto (teacher) trink' (drink) pano (bread)<BR> knabo (boy) vend' (sell) sukero (sugar)<BR> patro (father) vid' (see) teo (tea)<BR><BR>Each Esperanto letter has only one sound, always. Here is a guide to some<BR>of the sounds. The stress is always on the next-to-last syllable of a<BR>word.<BR><BR> A E I O U<BR> palm there three glory too<BR><BR>c = ts (in lots); oj = oy (in boy); G = g (in go)<BR>kn are always pronounced separately: k-nabo<BR><BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> Study Aid for Lesson One<BR><BR>Read Lesson 1 thoroughly, but before trying the exercises below,<BR>try these translations and check your answers with ours.<BR><BR>(We have supplied some words and endings to help you get started).<BR><BR>1. The friend will-sell milk.<BR><BR><BR> lakton.<BR><BR>2. Mother drinks coffee with milk and sugar.<BR><BR><BR> Patrino -n kun kaj<BR><BR>3. The teachers forgot the tea.<BR><BR><BR> -j -n.<BR><BR>4. The boys will-make the cake.<BR><BR><BR> -n.<BR><BR>5. La knabinoj vidos la instruiston. [knabinoj = girls]<BR><BR><BR>6. La instruisto vidis la knabinojn.<BR><BR><BR>7. La filoj trinkas teon sen lakto. [sen = without]<BR><BR><BR>8. La birdoj vidis la insektojn.<BR><BR><BR>After checking these sentences, do the exercises of Lesson 1.<BR>If there is anything you do not understand, be sure to ask your tutor.<BR><BR>We will try to be prompt, but be patient, and most of all:<BR>Bonvenon al Esperanto (Welcome to Esperanto)!<BR><BR><BR>A
nswers to the above exercises<BR><BR>1. La amiko vendos lakton.<BR>2. Patrino trinkas kafon kun lakto kaj sukero.<BR>3. La instruistoj forgesis la teon.<BR>4. La knaboj faros la kukon.<BR>5. The girls will see the teacher.<BR>6. The teacher saw the girls.<BR>7. The sons drink tea without milk.<BR>8. The birds saw the insects.<BR><BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Unu (Exercises, Lesson One)<BR><BR>Take your time and translate the following sentences into Esperanto.<BR>Type your answers between the questions.<BR><BR> Examples: The men sold cakes.<BR> La viroj vendis kukojn.<BR><BR> The man sold a cake.<BR> La viro vendis kukon.<BR><BR>[Note]<BR><BR>1. Father makes a cake.<BR><BR><BR>2. The boy will-have the sugar.<BR><BR><BR>3. The son forgot the milk.<BR><BR><BR>4. The boys drink tea.<BR><BR><BR>5. The friend sold the bread.<BR><BR><BR>6. The teacher sees a boy.<BR><BR><BR>7. The son has a friend.<BR><BR><BR>8. The brother made bread.<BR><BR><BR>9. The boys will-have cake.<BR><BR><BR>10. Father forgot the sugar.<BR><BR><BR>11. The boys had friends.<BR><BR><BR>12. The sons saw the bread.<BR><BR><BR>13. The brothers sell sugar.<BR><BR><BR>14. The teacher forgets the boy.<BR><BR><BR>15. The friend will-drink milk.<BR><BR><BR>16. The sons are-making cakes.<BR><BR><BR>17. Father will-sell the cake.<BR><BR><BR>18. The friend had bread.<BR><BR><BR>19. The boys will-see the teachers.<BR><BR><BR>20. The teachers drink coffee.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract to here ____________________________<BR><BR>Now, don't forget to add your name and e-mail address, and mail these<BR>exercises to the address for your tutor in the Welcome Letter, with<BR>subject: 'FEC ekz 1'.<BR><BR>Well, we hope we haven't scared you off in this first meeting with<BR>Esperanto. Just remember - the language ability you used in the above<BR>exercises might take months to reach in secondary school French or Spanish.<BR><BR>The Free Esperanto Course begins simply, but by Lesson 10 you will<BR>understand sophisticated Esperanto with complex syntax.<BR><BR>Upon satisfactory completion of the series of ten lessons, you will receive<BR>a framable 'Certificate of Completion'.<BR><BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR>While waiting for a reply from your tutor, you can learn some numbers<BR>and colors:<BR><BR>0 nulo (say: noo-lo)<BR>1 unu (say: oo-noo) flava (FLAH-vah) yellow<BR>2 du (say: doo) verda (VER-dah) green<BR>3 tri (say: t-ri) blua (BLOO-ah) blue<BR>4 kvar blanka (BLAN-ka) white<BR>5 kvin nigra (NEE-gra) black<BR>6 ses griza (GREE-zah) grey<BR>7 sep bruna (BROO-nah) brown<BR>8 ok rugxa (ROO-djah) red<BR>9 naux (say: now) ("gx" as in "gem", "gentle")<BR>10 dek<BR>11 dek unu<BR> ...<BR>20 dudek<BR>21 dudek unu<BR> ...<BR>30 tridek<BR>31 tridek unu<BR> ...<BR>100 cent (say: tsent)<br><DIV> </DIV><DIV><FONT face=Arial></FONT> </DIV><DIV><BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E<BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> Lesson Two<BR><BR>Thanks for trying Lesson 1. By now you should have received corrections<BR>to the exercises of the first lesson. Here is the next lesson. Keep it<BR>up!<BR><BR>Let's review the "grammar-coding" for a second:<BR><BR> subject thing(s) action object thing(s)<BR> -o -as -on<BR> -is<BR> -oj -os -ojn<BR><BR>Two-thirds of the pattern so far deals with "things" (nouns). Now let's<BR>take a look at how to describe these things: good coffee, good tea<BR>(adjectives).<BR><BR>Something that describes, such as "good," is called an adjective. In<BR>Esperanto, adjectives are grammar coded with an "-a" ending.<BR><BR>As in some other languages (but not in English) the adjective ending ("-a")<BR>has to "agree" with the noun it describes. That is, if the noun is plural,<BR>the adjective must also be plural. If the noun is an object ("-n"), the<BR>adjective must also be an object.<BR><BR> subject thing(s) action object thing(s)<BR> bona patro havos bonan filon<BR> a good father will have a good son<BR><BR> bonaj patroj havos bonajn filojn<BR> good fathers will have good sons<BR><BR>(Note: "aj" is pronounced like the English word "eye".)<BR><BR>Vocabulary: In each lesson we will introduce about twenty new words to<BR>you; learn these but remember to review the words in the previous lesson.<BR>Use the words below to practice what you've just learned.<BR>The exercises in this lesson are split into three parts.<BR><BR>Vocabulary, lesson two<BR><BR> Adjectives Nouns Verb Roots<BR> bela (beautiful) akvo (water) am' (love)<BR> granda (big) butiko (shop) lav' (wash)<BR> nova (new) limonado (lemonade) pet' (ask, request)<BR> sana (healthy) papero (paper) port' (carry, wear)<BR> seka (dry) plumo (pen) renkont' (meet)<BR> varma (warm) taso (cup) skrib' (write)<BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Du (parto unu)<BR><BR>1. A healthy boy drinks warm milk.<BR><BR><BR>2. The new shop sells dry cakes.<BR><BR><BR>3. The big teacher met the new friends.<BR><BR><BR>4. The good friends will-make a beautiful cake.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract to here ____________________________<BR><BR><BR>Reminder:<BR> -a -o -as -an -on<BR> -aj -oj -is -ajn -ojn<BR> -os<BR><BR>We haven't been able to give you enough vocabulary to let us vary these<BR>exercises very much, but in Esperanto the system of regular word building<BR>(with prefixes and suffixes) lets us expand our vocabulary with little<BR>effort. For example, the "mal-" makes words of opposite meaning:<BR><BR> bona = good malbona = bad<BR> pura = clean malpura = dirty<BR> sana = healthy malsana = ill, sick<BR> am' = love malam' = hate<BR> amiko = friend (male) malamiko = enemy (male)<BR><BR>and similarly the "-in-" makes words specifically female.<BR><BR> patro = father patrino = mother<BR><BR> and thus for all female living creatures:<BR><BR> kato = cat katino = female cat<BR><BR>The 'vir' prefix is the original way to mark something as explicitly male:<BR>virkato. Most people avoid using the root form as a 'male' form. It is rare<BR>that you have to mark sex - it is proper to say, for example, Sally estas<BR>instruisto, instead of saying Sally estas instruistino.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Du (parto du)<BR><BR>5. The small girl met the ugly sisters.<BR><BR><BR>6. The old cup has new lemonade.<BR><BR><BR>7. The new cup has old milk.<BR><BR><BR>8. Mother will-wash the small cups.<BR><BR><BR>9. The small boy carried the new bread.<BR><BR><BR>10. Cold water washes a small boy.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract to here ____________________________<BR><BR><BR>"Ne" in front of any verb makes it negative, the action that doesn't<BR>happe
n, or didn't happen, or won't happen.<BR><BR>ne havas = doesn't (don't) have; ne faras = doesn't do<BR><BR>Here is just one verb ("to be") displayed in the usual way (all Esperanto<BR>verbs follow the same rule!):<BR><BR>General form (infinitive) to be esti<BR><BR>Present tense (-as form) I am mi estas<BR> you are vi estas<BR> he is li estas<BR> she is sxi estas<BR> it is gxi estas<BR> we are ni estas<BR> you are vi estas<BR> they are ili estas<BR> one is oni estas<BR><BR>est' is the verb root and always appears wherever the verb is used. Does<BR>this verb even have a root in English? (am, is, are)<BR><BR>In the above verb display, note:<BR><BR> sxi (she) is pronounced exactly like the English "she"<BR><BR> gxi (it) is pronounced like the English "gee!", as in "Jeep"<BR><BR> vi (you) is both singular and plural, like the English "you."<BR><BR> (There is a word "ci", singular, but it is used much as the English<BR> singular "thou" - not very often!)<BR><BR> Note, too, that although pronouns do not end in -o when they are<BR> "subject things", they do take the -n when they are "object things":<BR><BR> La patrino lavas la knabon. Sxi lavas lin.<BR> The mother washes the boy. She washes him.<BR><BR>Now that we have learned the pronouns:<BR><BR> mi vi li sxi gxi ni vi ili oni<BR> I you he she it we you they one<BR><BR>we can form the possessive adjectives:<BR><BR> mia via lia sxia gxia nia via ilia (pronounced ee-LEE-a) onia<BR> my your his her its our your their one's<BR><BR>which are really adjectives because they identify (describe) the nouns they<BR>are attached to. Mia plumo = my pen. The ending "-a" on possessive<BR>adjectives follows the same rules about agreement as adjectives:<BR><BR> Mia amiko amas mian fratinon.<BR><BR> Miaj amikoj amas miajn fratinojn.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Du (parto tri)<BR><BR>11. I forgot my pen.<BR><BR><BR>12. We don't have paper.<BR><BR><BR>13. My daughter requested warm milk.<BR><BR><BR>14. Her old friend didn't write.<BR><BR><BR>15. You will meet their old friends.<BR><BR><BR>16. She will have the warm water.<BR><BR><BR>17. Your new teacher forgot your sugar.<BR><BR><BR>18. The boys hate our new teacher.<BR><BR><BR>19. They sell tea and (kaj) coffee.<BR><BR><BR>20. We will sell her cake and his pens.<BR><BR><BR>Note: kaj (and) is pronounced like the ki in kite.</DIV><DIV> </DIV><DIV><FONT face=Arial></FONT> </DIV><DIV><BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E<BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> Lesson Three<BR><BR>It may seem like we packed a lot into Lesson Two, but here are the main<BR>things you have learned so far:<BR><BR> subject thing(s) action object thing(s)<BR> -o -as -on<BR> -is<BR> -oj -os -ojn<BR><BR> Mia patrino --------- lavas --------- mian fraton.<BR> Niaj fratinoj --------- vidis ------- viajn instruistinojn.<BR><BR>You don't have to write sentences in the above word order, but it is the<BR>most common form, and for English-speakers it's easier to learn just<BR>this pattern at first.<BR><BR>Once you realize that "grammar coding" tells you what part each word plays<BR>in a sentence (its function), you could, for poetry or emphasis, arrange<BR>the coded words in any other order without changing the original meaning.<BR><BR>Let's take a look at a couple of examples of different word order and<BR>answer a couple of questions (remember to pay attention to the endings of<BR>the words).<BR><BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto unu)<BR><BR> Mian fraton lavis mia patrino.<BR><BR>1. Who was washed?<BR> Who did the washing?<BR><BR> Instruistinojn viajn fratinoj niaj vidis.<BR><BR>2. Who did the seeing?<BR> Who was seen?<BR><BR>__________________________ extract to here ____________________________<BR><BR><BR>In this 10-lesson course we are going to stick to the subject-verb-object<BR>word order, but in well-written Esperanto texts other word orders are<BR>frequently used for reasons of emphasis and text coherence. If you use<BR>Esperanto you will rapidly acquire a feeling for word order. The best<BR>word order to use depends mainly on the context, so it is difficult to give<BR>precise "rules".<BR><BR>Let's go on now, right to this lesson's word list below.<BR><BR>Vocabulary, lesson three<BR><BR>Nouns Verbs (infinitives) Adjectives<BR>horo (hour) atendi (to wait for) blanka (white)<BR>jaro (year) fumi (to smoke) blua (blue)<BR>mateno (morning) kuri (to run) bruna (brown)<BR>minuto (minute) sati (to be satisfied) flava (yellow)<BR>nokto (night) promeni (to stroll) griza (gray)<BR>semajno (week) respondi (to answer) nigra (black)<BR>tago (day) soifi (to be thirsty) rugxa (red)<BR>vespero (evening) vivi (to live) verda (green)<BR> demandi (to inquire, ask a question)<BR><BR>Note the difference between demandi (related to questions) and peti<BR>(related to requests or "petitions"). Both can be translated as<BR>"ask" in English.<BR><BR>Remember, j is pronounced like y, so jaro = YAH-row.<BR><BR>Adverbs: Adverbs are like adjectives, but instead of describing nouns,<BR>adverbs describe verbs and adjectives, usually telling how, when, or where.<BR>(Adverbs in English usually end in -ly).<BR><BR>In Esperanto, adverbs derived from other words always end in -e.<BR><BR>We can use the basic idea of a word in different ways by simply changing<BR>the grammar-coded ending:<BR><BR> sano = health sxi havas bonan sanon<BR> sana = healthy sxi estas sana<BR> sani = to be healthy sxi sanas<BR> sane = healthily sxi sane vivas<BR><BR>Adverbs usually precede the word they describe.<BR><BR>Note: The pronunciation of adverbs, ending in "-e", needs some attention.<BR>In general, every vowel makes up one syllable (sound unit) of an Esperanto<BR>word. Therefore, we must read the two-part sound of "sane" as "SAH-neh"<BR>and not as the one-part sound of the English word "sane".<BR><BR>Lesson four will concentrate more on the correct sounds of Esperanto.<BR>Right now, let's just say that Esperanto "e" should be pronounced as the<BR>"e" in "met". Due to different pronunciations throughout the English-<BR>speaking world, it is impossible to give exact Esperanto pronunciation in<BR>writing.<BR><BR><BR> subject thing verb adverb object thing<BR> -a -o -as -e -an -on<BR> -aj -oj -is -ajn -ojn<BR> -os<BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto du)<BR><BR>3. My brother will-stroll in-the-morning ("morningly").<BR><BR><BR>4. His friend replied warmly.<BR><BR><BR>5. The brown pen writes well ("goodly").<BR><BR><BR>6. The grey teacher runs badly.<BR><BR><BR>7. Our father smokes in-the-evening ("eveningly").<BR><BR><BR>8. He loves her.<BR><BR><BR>9. He loves her sister.<BR><BR><BR>10. She loves him.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract to here ____________________________<BR><BR><BR>Numbers (cardinal numb
ers are not grammar-coded: no endings)<BR><BR>nulo 0 dek 10 tridek 30<BR>unu 1 dek unu 11 tridek unu 31<BR>du 2 dek du 12 tridek du 32<BR>tri 3 dek tri 13 ...<BR>kvar 4 dek kvar 14 kvardek 40<BR>kvin 5 ... kvindek 50<BR>ses 6 and so on to sesdek 60<BR>sep 7 dudek 20 cent 100<BR>ok 8 dudek unu 21 mil 1 000<BR>naux 9 ... miliono 1 000 000<BR><BR><BR>Numbers (ordinal numbers have the ending "-a", like adjectives, and take<BR>the plural "-j" and object "-n", like adjectives)<BR><BR> unua first dudeka twentieth<BR> dua second sepdek unua seventy-first<BR> tria third centa hundredth<BR><BR> unue firstly trie thirdly<BR> due secondly kvare fourthly<BR><BR>Note: the "aux" is pronounced as "ow" in cow.<BR><BR>Note: the adverb form of the numbers is sometimes translated as: unue =<BR>in the first place; trie = in the third place, etc.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto tri)<BR><BR>11. The first man loves the second woman.<BR><BR><BR>12. The second woman hates the first man.<BR><BR><BR>13. Two boys firstly asked for three cakes.<BR><BR><BR>14. In-the-second-place they asked for lemonade.<BR><BR><BR>15. The shop makes bad brown bread.<BR><BR><BR>16. The shop makes brown bread badly.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract to here ____________________________<BR><BR><BR>Intransitive verbs do not show action from a subject to an object; instead,<BR>intransitive verbs are used to show the state of the subject. Adjectives<BR>after intransitive verbs describe the subject.<BR><BR> Li estas sana. Sxi estas instruisto (or: instruistino).<BR> He is healthy. She is a teacher.<BR><BR>The object "-n" is not used after such verbs.<BR><BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto kvar)<BR><BR>17. Sixty minutes are one hour.<BR><BR><BR>18. Twenty-four hours are one day (and night).<BR><BR><BR>19. Seven days are one week.<BR><BR><BR>20. The third boy is my second son.<BR><BR><BR>If you would like a pronunciation record or other material in Esperanto,<BR>write to your national Esperanto organization. The address is in the<BR>Welcome Letter. This is not mandatory for this lesson series, but hearing<BR>spoken Esperanto is a great help.<BR><BR><BR><BR><BR><BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E<BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> Lesson Four<BR><BR>Now let's look at statements, questions, and answers:<BR><BR>A statement: La pano estas bruna.<BR> The bread is brown.<BR><BR>A question: Cxu la pano estas bruna?<BR> Is the bread brown?<BR><BR>The answer: (a) Jes, la pano estas bruna.<BR> (b) Ne, la pano ne estas bruna, gxi estas blanka.<BR><BR>Note: Every question is based on a statement; we identify that statement,<BR>placing the 'doubting' word cxu (literally, 'whether') in front, and then<BR>we are asking "Is this true?" Also note that the word order in Esperanto<BR>is not changed; only the word 'cxu' is placed in front of the statement.<BR><BR>English question: Will the boys sell the cake?<BR><BR>Underlying statement: (The boys will sell the cake.)<BR> (La knaboj vendos la kukon.)<BR><BR>Esperanto question: Cxu la knaboj vendos la kukon?<BR><BR>All 'yes-or-no' questions are handled in the same way.<BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Kvar (parto unu)<BR><BR>Change the following statements into questions:<BR><BR>Mia filo forgesis la teon. -><BR><BR>Lia patro faras panon. -><BR><BR>La tago estas griza. -><BR><BR>__________________________ extract to here ____________________________<BR><BR>In the first three lessons, you have learned how to write simple statements<BR>correctly, and now know how to make questions and give answers. As soon as<BR>you have learned all the sounds of Esperanto (detailed, as best as possible<BR>in writing, see below) we can start in on conversations, in Lesson Five.<BR>(Remember to complete the exercises at the bottom.)<BR><BR>The Esperanto alphabet:<BR><BR>a b c cx d e f g gx h hx i j jx k l m n o p r s sx t u ux v z<BR><BR>Note that the names of the letters (used when spelling aloud, etc.)<BR>are a, bo, co, cxo, do, e, fo, go, gxo, ho, hxo, i, etc. That is, the<BR>consonants get an 'o' after them, and the name of each vowel is the<BR>sound of the vowel itself. Note that "uxo" is pronounced sort of like<BR>English 'wo'.<BR><BR>There are 26 letters in the English alphabet; 28 in Esperanto. In<BR>Esperanto there is no q, w, x, or y. In Esperanto there are 6 letters not<BR>found in English (all 6 have accent marks): cx, gx, hx, jx, sx [all<BR>circumflexes], and ux [a u-breve].<BR><BR>The Esperanto letters 'j' and 'ux' are not vowels and can combine with real<BR>vowels (a, e, i, o, and u) to make 'vowel glides' which must be learned as<BR>separate sounds (below).<BR><BR>Pronunciation Guide<BR><BR>Remember, in Esperanto: one letter - one sound. No exceptions.<BR><BR>Vowel Sounds (accented/emphasized vowels are capitalized)<BR><BR>a as in Ma, father: blANka sAna grAnda vArma<BR>e as in send, met: bEla plEna vErda pEti<BR>i as in me, three: vIvi Ami trInki fIlo<BR>o as in more, or: Ovo dOmo kIo nOva<BR>u as in two, soon: Unu plUmo sUno butIko<BR><BR>Consonant Sounds (mainly as in English, except:)<BR><BR>c pronounced 'ts' in nests: dAnco leciOno bicIklo<BR>cx pronounced 'ch'in church: cxAmbro sandvIcxo cxokolAdo<BR>g pronounced 'g' in great: sagEto gustUmi geografIo<BR>gx pronounced 'g' in George: mAngxi lOgxi sEgxo<BR>hx pronounced 'ch'in Bach: jAhxto hxOro Ehxo<BR>j pronounced 'y' in yet: jEs jAro jUna<BR>jx pronounced 's' in leisure: jxurnAlo teatrAjxo jxalUzo<BR>sx pronounced 'sh'in shoe: sxAti pOsxo sxUo<BR><BR>ux is used most often in the combination 'aux' or 'eux' (otherwise it has a<BR>'w' sound, as in weather).<BR><BR>Remember: All sounds presented in this Pronunciation Guide are<BR>approximations. They are the closest approximations for North American<BR>English-speakers.<BR><BR>Vowel Glides (diphthongs). The following combinations between a vowel (a,<BR>e, o, u) and 'j' or 'ux' make one sound:<BR><BR>aj pronounced as 'eye': mAjo kAj semAjno<BR>oj pronounced as in 'boy': knAboj vojAgxi gxOjo<BR>ej pronounced as in 'they': plEj mEjlo lernEjo<BR>uj pronounced 'oo-ee' (quickly) tUj AnglUjo monUjo<BR>aux pronounced as in 'cow': nAUX Antaux jxAUXdo<BR>eux pronounced as in 'wayward': EuxrOpo neuxtrAla EuxklIdo<BR><BR>In all the examples above, the vowel of the stressed (or accented) syllable<BR>has been capitalized. This follows the rule without exception that every<BR>word in Esperanto is stressed on the next-to-last syllable.<BR><BR>Here is a list of words (and translations) that represent sounds in<BR>Esperanto [not just those covered above]. Practice them carefully and your<BR>pronunciation will get better and better.<BR><BR>Anglujo Engl
and lernejo school<BR>antaux before majo May<BR>acxeti to buy mangxi to eat<BR>biciklo bicycle mejlo mile<BR>cxambro room monujo purse<BR>cxokolado chocolate neuxtrala neutral<BR>danco dance ovo egg<BR>domo house plej most...<BR>ehxo echo plena full<BR>Euxropo Europe posxo pocket<BR>Euxklido Euclid sageto dart<BR>geografio geography sandvicxo sandwich<BR>gustumi to taste segxo seat, chair<BR>gxojo joy suno sun<BR>hxoro choir sxati to like<BR>jahxto yacht sxuo shoe<BR>juna young teatrajxo (theatrical) play<BR>jxaluzo jealousy tuj immediately<BR>jxauxdo Thursday vojagxi to travel<BR>jxurnalo newspaper<BR>kio what (thing)<BR>leciono lesson best advice: practice! practice!<BR>libro book practice!<BR>logxi to reside<BR><BR>__________________________ extract from here ____________________________<BR><BR> Ekzercoj, Leciono Kvar (parto du)<BR><BR>(translate, but don't answer!)<BR><BR>1. Is father making a cake?<BR><BR><BR>2. Did the son forget the milk?<BR><BR><BR>3. Will father sell the cakes?<BR><BR><BR>4. Does a healthy boy drink warm milk?<BR><BR><BR>5. Will the daughter eat a sandwich?<BR><BR><BR>6. Did the new teacher forget your sugar?<BR><BR><BR>7. Do they sell tea and coffee?<BR><BR><BR>8. Did the sick girl write badly?<BR><BR><BR>9. Is he healthy?<BR><BR><BR>10. Are seven days one week?<BR><BR><BR><BR>Answer in Esperanto; use complete sentences, not just jes or ne.<BR><BR>11. Is milk white?<BR><BR><BR>12. Is water dry?<BR><BR><BR>13. Is the sun warm?<BR><BR><BR>14. Is your mother a man?<BR><BR><BR>15. Are you wearing an empty shoe?<BR><BR><BR>16. Do two and two make four? [Use estas]<BR><BR><BR>17. Do you eat water?<BR><BR><BR>18. Is coffee blue?<BR><BR><BR>19. Are seven days one week?<BR><BR><BR>20. Do you drink cakes?<BR><BR><BR>(Sorry about the silly questions, but the answers are easy.)<BR><BR><BR><BR><BR><BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E<BR>__________________________________________________________________________<BR><BR> Lesson Five<BR><BR>Saluton! (Hello! Greetings!)<BR><BR>Bonan tagon! Good day!<BR>Bonan matenon! Good morning!<BR>Bonan vesperon! Good evening!<BR>Bonan nokton! Good night!<BR><BR>Kiel vi fartas? How are you? (farti = to fare, be)<BR>Bone, dankon. Kaj vi? Fine, thanks. And you?<BR>Suficxe bone. So-so. (literally, sufficiently well)<BR>Ne tre bone. Not so good.<BR>Bonan apetiton! Enjoy your food! (Bon appetit!)<BR>Je via sano! To your health!<BR>Same al vi, dankon. Same to you, thanks.<BR>Gxis la revido. See you later. (literally, until the re-seeing)<BR>Adiaux. Goodbye. (Adieu).<BR><BR>Conversation: If two people can talk about themselves for 5 minutes each,<BR>then they can easily have at least a 10 minute conversation.<BR><BR>By the end of this 10 lesson course, you should have written down all your<BR>vital statistics and personal details (true or false!) and you should know<BR>them by heart.<BR><BR>After that, you should be able to give a brief talk about yourself in<BR>Esperanto, even if you have to prompt yourself with a 'cheat-sheet' in<BR>English.<BR><BR>Let's take a look at an example about John Brown:<BR><BR> Mia nomo estas Johano Bruno. Mi logxas en Usono. Mi komencis lerni<BR>Esperanton antaux kvar semajnoj. Gxi estas tre facila lingvo. Mi logxas<BR>en domo kun mia edzino kaj niaj infanoj. Ni havas unu filinon kaj du<BR>filojn.<BR> Mi havas korespondantojn en tri landoj.<BR><BR>There are 45 very useful words which are a part of a regular system of<BR>correlated words (known technically, therefore, as "correlatives"). The<BR>meaning of any correlative is the combined meaning of the root (beginning)<BR>and the ending: (simple, isn't it?)<BR><BR> ki- [what] -o thing<BR> -a kind of, sort of<BR> ti- [that] -e place<BR> -u one, or person<BR> i- [some] -om quantity (amount)<BR> -am time<BR> cxi- [every] -al reason, for...reason<BR> -el manner, in...way<BR>neni- [no] -es one's; person's<BR><BR>examples:<BR><BR>tio = that thing iam = sometime nenie = no where<BR><BR>Typical correlatives and their equally typical English equivalents:<BR><BR> English Esperanto<BR><BR> how? (in) what manner kiel<BR> when? (at) what time kiam<BR> where? (at, in) what place kie<BR> why? (for) what reason kial<BR> how much? (in) what amount kiom<BR> always (at) every time cxiam<BR> thus (in) that way, manner tiel<BR> nobody no one, no person neniu<BR> somewhere (at) some place ie<BR><BR>Pay attention to the accent: ne-NI-e, KI-u, TI-al, etc.<BR><BR>Note that in English prepositions may be included in the meaning of the<BR>Esperanto correlative.<BR><BR>The endings "a" and "u" take the grammar coding "-n" and/or "-j" whe

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